Air Pollution and Climate

Air Pollution and Climate:

  • “The Basic Environment Plan is based on the basic plan for environmental conservation Article 15, The Basic Environment Law, and was decided by the cabinet while consulting the Central Environment Council. It was approved on Dec., 1994. It declared the basic idea for environment policy based on the principles of the Basic Environment Law and four long-term objectives of cycle, harmonious coexistence, participation, and international activities and looking to the mid-twenty first century. It also indicated the direction for measures to be taken for the early 21st century, to be developed comprehensively and systematically”

http://www.env.go.jp/en/coop/pollution.html

Environmental Laws

  1. Air pollution
  • Regulations/laws

“As the aim is to protect the nation’s health and to conserve the human environment: (1) regulation for smoke and soot, as well as dust from factories and business establishments. (2) implementation of countermeasures for hazardous air pollutants. (3) stipulating allowable limit of automobile exhaust gas, and so on. Additionally, it provides liability in damages to protect victims with impeccability from business establishments.”

https://www.env.go.jp/en/coop/experience.html

Diagram for Air Pollution Laws (warning: extensive): http://www.env.go.jp/en/laws/air/diagram/fig17.html

http://www.env.go.jp/en/air/aq/aq.html

PM2.5

http://zoomingjapan.com/life-in-japan/air-pollution-in-japan/

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-02-27/tokyo-air-pollution-climbs-approaches-government-alert-levels

http://aqicn.org/map/tokyo/#@g/38.5218/139.4686/6z

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-carbon-japan-idUSKBN0N50BJ20150414

  • Incidents with pollution

Yokkaichi asthma

  • Big Four Disease
  • “Oils used here transferred its energy production from coal to oil more quickly than the rest of the nation. Oil used in Yokkaichi contained sulfur containing compound. Factories thus discharged large amounts of sulfur oxides that brought a white-coloured smog of exhaust around the city. In an analysis of the pollution disaster,  Kitagawa reports that more than six hundred patients with respiratory diseases were found in in the city of Yokkaichi in Mie Prefecture, Japan between 1960 and 1969. Chronic bronchitis, allergic asthma bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema and sore throat were observed as the principal illnesses of Yokkaichi occupants.Initially, taller smokestacks were introduced with the intention of discharging”

https://thepollutionreport.wordpress.com/2015/03/17/the-yokkaichi-asthma/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yokkaichi_asthma

  • CO2 produced
  • All of Japan’s 48 nuclear reactors have been shut down since September 2013, amid rigorous safety checks required after the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami wrecked the Fukushima plant northeast of Tokyo.Nuclear power had accounted for 26 percent of Japan’s electricity generation. Its loss has forced the country to import natural gas and coal, increasing its greenhouse gas emissions.”

https://gyazo.com/31fcf87ad1a12b7e90816bfdcc4a242a

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-carbon-japan-idUSKBN0N50BJ20150414

  1. Climate
  • Normal climate patterns
  • “The former city of Tokyo and the majority of mainland Tokyo lie in the humid subtropical climate zone with hot humid summers and generally mild winters with cool spells. Annual rainfall averages nearly 1,530 millimetres (60.2 in), with a wetter summer and a drier winter. Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almost annually.”
    • On average, the warmest month(s) are July and August.
    • Most rainfall (rainy season) is seen in March, April, May, June, July, August, September and October.
    • On average, the warmest month is August.
    • On average, the coolest month is January.
    • June is the wettest month.
    • January is the driest month.”

https://weather-and-climate.com/average-monthly-Rainfall-Temperature-Sunshine,Tokyo,Japan

  • Natural disasters

  • Many earthquakes 100 to 200 years ago did much damage

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_disasters_in_Japan

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_disasters_in_Japan_by_death_toll

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_disasters_in_Japan#Typhoons

  • Potential effects of climate change

https://www.wwf.or.jp/activities/lib/pdf_climate/environment/WWF_NipponChanges_lores.pdf

http://ourworld.unu.edu/en/japan-examines-costs-of-climate-change

 

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